Follow new posts by email

Monday, 30 July 2012

Metaphysics: Defined
Metaphysic comes from 2 words, the word “meta” meaning  “beyond”. So and "physics"  meaning "the study of the material world." The practice of metaphysics means “beyond physics.” Metaphysics is considered to be a branch of philosophy that examines the fundamental nature of life itself. Metaphysics examines life and all of its myriad aspects from the perspective of one who asks questions that go beyond the limited scope of science itself.
Metaphysics as a discipline, was a central part of scholarly education even before the age of Aristotle who considered it "the Queen of Sciences." Its issues were considered by the masses  to be no less important than the other main formal subjects like physical science, medicine, and mathematics. Eventually, metaphysics grew to encompass the philosophy of religion where it continues to thrive to this day.Unfortunately, by the 18th century, people began to ask “how do you know that?” This change in the direction of questioning lead to what is now known as modern day science.

So what does it mean to go “beyond physics”? This concept, considered crazy talk in some circles, encourages the student tolook behind the veil, to explore every idea, to examine new ways of looking at any subject. More than that, we take these ideas and we test them, we put them into practice, and we seek to live on the cutting edge of physics and metaphysics in a way that shakes up traditional thinking.  

So you must ask yourself, is this YOU? Are you the kind of person who sees the world through different eyes? Are you the kind of person who wants to take these new ideas, put them into action, and make the world a better place?

Monday, 16 July 2012

Religion in Ancient Egypt: The Gods and Goddesses

the Gods and goddesses of ancient Egypt
There were an incredible number of Gods and Goddesses in Ancient Egypt, one for almost every situation and place. Many of the Gods began as local deities and were later organised and merged with others to form either a Triad or an Ennead (nine). There were several large schools of theological thought in Egypt, and each proclaimed its superiority over the others. A ruling dynasty would often promote their chief local god to the chief national god. For example,Amun (associated with Thebes) did not become a major deity until the shift of power to Thebes in the Middle Kingdom.
Many of Ancient Egypt's Gods and Goddesses share characteristics and epithets at different times in history. For example, Sekhmet (the lion Goddess of Memphis), MutTefnut and Hathor are all given the title 'the Eye of Ra' and given the task of protecting the sun god. There is often confusion about the different gods known as Horus. For example, Horus the elder was often thought to be the consort of Hathor, while Horus the younger was the son of Isisand Osiris. This is unsurprising given that the Egyptian civilisation survived for over three thousand years, and the religious system was constantly evolving.
stele copyright Guillaume-Blanchard
In pre-dynastic times, religion was largely animistic (they considered certain animals, plants and geographic features to be the homes of spirits). Many Ancient Egyptian gods are represented by totemic animals based on the ancient understanding of the role or characteristic of the animal. For example, Anubis (the Jackal) was associated with the dead and funeral arrangements because jackals were often seen on the edge of the desert where the Egyptians were buried. It was considered that the jackals guarded the souls of the deceased. As the Egyptians were dependent on the flooding of the life-giving Nile, it is hardly surprising that water deities (such as Hapi and Aunket) and agricultural deities (such as Osiris) would be popular. As their civilisation developed, the gods of Ancient Egypt took more human form and multiplied in number. Cosmological deities (such as the sun and moon) and gods of warfare and hunting soon followed.
Even during the "Atenist heresy" of the Armarna period (when Akhenaten rejected the old gods in favour of the Aten disk) Egypt was not fully monotheistic. Akhenaten himself claimed he would maintain the cult of the Apis bull and representations of Bes (the god of childbirth) were found in his capital city. Furthermore, he and his queen, Nefertitiwere often likened to Shu and Tefnut. However, it is clear that monotheistic Christianity adopted, modified and simplified many of the symbols and myths of the ancient polytheistic religions, in particular that of the Egyptians.
The god's names

Ancient Egyptian Goddesses

AmentetAmmitAnatAnputAnuket (Anukis)BastBatHathorHatmehytHededetHemsutHeqet, Heret-Kau, Hesat,IabetIsis (Isis and Ra,Isis and OsirisIsis and the seven scorpionsIsis and associated goddesses), KauketKebechetMa'at, Mafdet, Mehet-weret, Menhet (Menhit)MeretsegerMeskhenetMutNaunetNehmetawyNekhbetNeithNephthysNut,QadeshRenenutetRenpetSatet (Satis)SekhmetSeshatSerqet (Selkit), Shepset, Shesmetet, Sopdet (Sothis), Ta-bitjet, Tasenetofret, TaweretTayetTefnutTjenenetWadjetWeret-hekau (Urthekau), Wosret 

Ancient Egyptian Gods

Ahy (Ihy)AkenAkerAm-hehAmunAndjetyAnhur/Onuris(Arensnuphis)AnubisApep (Apophis), As, AtenAtum, Auf,BanebdjedBesGebHapiHeka (Hike)Heryshef, Hu, Horus (Horus the ElderHorus Behedet/ Horus of EdfuHorus son of IsisHorakhtyHoremakhetKhentykhem), ImiutKhentiamentiuKhepri (Kheper)Kherty (Cherti)KhonsuKhnumKuk,Maahes (Mihos)MaahafMinMontuNefertum, Nehebkau, Nun, Opet, Osiris, Panebtawny, PtahRa (Re)ReshepSahu,Serapis (Sarapis)SepaSet, Shemsu, Sia, ShaiShuSobekSokarSopdu (Sopedu), Tatenen, Thoth, Weneg, Wepwawet, Yamm, Yah